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Introduction

Deana Arsenian, Carnegie Corporation of New York

For those of us with longstanding interest in U.S.-Russia relations, the current state of affairs is as distressing as it is alarming…

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Then and Now: Eight Lingering Questions on U.S.-Russia-Ukraine

David Speedie, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs

Why do we fail to understand that threats do not work with Putin’s Russia?…

U.S. Foreign Policy | NATO | Putin | Ukraine

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The West Has Failed to Find a Constructive Role for Moscow

Robert Hunter, Center for Transatlantic Relations and former US Ambassador to NATO

American leadership is indispensable in Europe. Mr. Putin does not take seriously ministrations by European leaders…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine | NATO | Putin

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Facing a Fragile Ceasefire

Rajan Menon, City College of New York & Kimberly Marten, Barnard College and Harriman Institute, Columbia University

If the peace deal is not honored, the administration of President Barack Obama will then be under even greater pressure to send lethal weapons to the government in Kiev…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine | Putin

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Is There a Plausible Strategy for the Ukraine Situation?

John Steinbruner, University of Maryland

Like it or not, we are entangled in the Ukraine situation and we need to face the implications unwelcome as they certainly are…

U.S. Foreign Policy | NATO

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What the West Can and Should Do For Ukraine

Ian Kearns, European Leadership Network & Steve Andreasen, Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) & Des Browne, ELN, NTI, and former UK Defence Secretary

The uncertain implementation of the fragile Minsk 2 cease fire agreement in eastern Ukraine has paused the debate over whether or not to arm Ukraine…

U.S. Foreign Policy

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Our Best Hope So Far

Matthew Rojansky, Kennan Institute at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

The outbreak of renewed sporadic violence is not the biggest or most important looming challenge…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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No Good Options

Timothy Frye, Harriman Institute, Columbia University

Calls to arm Ukraine have helped to galvanize diplomatic efforts to find a solution to the crisis, and over the longer term, the Ukrainian Army will need more weapons and better training, if only to enforce any peace agreement…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine | EU | NATO

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A Diplomatic Halfway House

Robert E. Hunter, Center for Transatlantic Relations and a former U.S. ambassador to NATO

Unless something new is done, everyone will lose…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine | NATO

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Want to arm Kiev? Better have a Plan B

Rajan Menon, City College of New York

Arming Ukraine probably would prompt Putin to scale up the war…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine | Putin

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West Must Either Commit to Ukraine or Back Off

Dmitry Gorenburg, CNA Corporation

Putin has for years been offering a deal in the old realpolitik tradition — let’s draw a line, you run the world on that side, and I’ll run it on this side…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine | Putin

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When threatened, Putin will push back

Kimberly Marten, Barnard College and Harriman Institute, Columbia University

Everything we know about Putin’s personality says that when he is threatened he will fight harder…

NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine | Putin

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Weapons Won’t End the Conflict

Simon Saradzhyan, Harvard University

What Ukraine needs more than any weapons is greater quantities of professionally trained soldiers…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Military assistance to Ukraine should be part of broader strategy

Oxana Shevel, Tufts University

Washington should seriously contemplate military assistance as part of a broader strategy for ending the conflict in Ukraine…

U.S. Foreign Policy| Ukraine

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Arms likely to spark further escalation

Cory Welt, George Washington University

The U.S. ought to have a plan in place for how it will respond to another round of escalation – and a plan that does not involve a constant ratcheting up of military assistance…

U.S. Foreign Policy| Ukraine

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Arms support for Ukraine should be contingent on talks

Sergiy Kudelia, Baylor University

If the goal of the U.S. government is to achieve a lasting peace in eastern Ukraine, it should use its leverage to compel the Ukrainian government to agree to the partitioning of the Donbas…

U.S. Foreign Policy| Ukraine

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Arms alone won’t win Ukraine

Nikolai Sokov, Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation

The effectiveness of that assistance will primarily depend on Kyiv’s ability to use it…

U.S. Foreign Policy| Ukraine

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Endangering USA won’t stop Putin

Kimberly Marten, Barnard College, Columbia University

Supplying Kiev with lethal weaponry would endanger U.S. national security interests, while having little chance of stopping Vladimir Putin…

NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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How to Start a Proxy War with Russia

Michael Kofman, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

The United States has absolutely no obligations to Ukraine’s security under any type of accord or framework…

NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Appeasement is not an option

Sergey Minasyan, Caucasus Institute

A strong signal from the U.S. government is not enough if there is no determination for a subsequent military step…

U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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There Is No Zero-Sum Solution

Dylan Royce, George Washington University

If the U.S. is unwilling to take real military action, then it should consider a mutually acceptable settlement now …

NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Students Are Political Pawns

Ekaterina Kudrina, Institute for the U.S. and Canadian Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences & A. Paul Massaro III, University of Maryland School of Public Policy

Student exchange programs between Russia and the United States are in grave danger…

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Opportunity in a Shared Enemy

Ekaterina Kudrina, Institute for the U.S. and Canadian Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences & A. Paul Massaro III, University of Maryland School of Public Policy

ISIS has given the United States and Russia a golden opportunity to recommence cooperation…

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Don’t Prop up Putin by Giving Him an Enemy

Kimberly Marten, Columbia University

Putin’s actions have gone beyond simply reasserting Russia’s great power status. He is goading the United States to take a more militarized approach to the crisis …

NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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The Guns of Ukrainian August

Arthur Martirosyan, The Bridgeway Group

From a conflict resolution perspective, the question—admittedly very difficult now that the violence has escalated and several thousand civilians, soldiers, and rebels have been killed in Eastern Ukraine—is: can the West go beyond isolating Russia and act together to contain the escalating violence and transform the conflict into constructive dialogue?…

EU | NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Ukraine: Cool the Rhetoric; Focus on the Outcome

Jack Matlock, Jr., Institute for Advanced Study

Settlement on any terms while fighting continues seems most unlikely, so efforts to stop the fighting and meet the humanitarian needs of the people trapped in combat zones must take priority. Nevertheless, active negotiations to reach an overall settlement must proceed in order to improve the prospects for a cease-fire and the durability of one, if reached…

EU | NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Diverging Visions of Partnership

Shireen T. Hunter, Georgetown University

In short, the West’s idea of partnership was Russia’s absolute acquiescence with all Western policies anywhere in the world, irrespective of the consequences for Russia, along with the total reshaping of Russian society according to a Western model, without any consideration for Russia’s peculiarities, history, and culture…

NATO | Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Maximalist Rhetoric and the Realities of the Region

Samuel Charap, International Institute for Strategic Studies

[E]ven if some in Moscow may dream of a new Soviet Union, that means very little in practical terms since its neighbors have no interest in giving up their political independence…

U.S. Foreign Policy

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A Long History of Mistrust

Sergei Konoplyov, Harvard University

The main assumption underlying Putin’s vision is that the United States, by various ways and means, is set on deceiving Russia. Foremost in that assumption is that the United States destroyed the USSR and constantly seeks to diminish Russia’s global and regional role, all the while attempting to gain access to Russian oil and gas…

NATO | Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy

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Nationalism and the Logic of Russian Actions in Ukraine

Henry E. Hale, George Washington University

Putin’s move in Crimea and the subsequent efforts to destabilize eastern Ukraine can be seen as an attempt to overturn the chessboard when the arrangement of pieces is no longer favorable, forcing a new game with different rules…

Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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The Dangers of Inflexibility

Andrew S. Weiss, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

The confluence of global crises this summer (Gaza, Ebola, Iraq, etc.) should remind all of us of the fragility of the existing global system and reignite a debate on why the post-1989 bipartisan American foreign policy vision sought to convert as many states as possible into stakeholders…

NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Russia and the New “New World Order”

Robert Hunter, Johns Hopkins University

The West does have to respond to Putin’s seizure of Crimea and threats to the rest of Ukraine, which, among other things, violate the 1975 Helsinki Final Act and the 2004 Budapest Memorandum. The U.S. and its allies have to take military and other steps to reassure anxious allies in Central Europe that NATO membership means what it says…

EU | NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Why Russia Intervenes

Mark Kramer, Harvard University

No doubt, the cynical brutality of Russian President Vladimir Putin can be infuriating, but the notion that Russia has been behaving in ways that other great powers normally eschew is not borne out by a perusal of the academic literature on international relations and the history of revolutions…

EU | NATO | Putin | Ukraine

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Decoding Mixed Messages

Paul Saunders, Center for the National Interest

The bottom line is that there is a very big difference between the largely peaceful annexation of Crimea with its economy intact, and fighting a major war to win the privilege of investing tens of billions of dollars or more in eastern Ukraine…

China | NATO | Putin | Sanctions | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Why the U.S. Should Keep Cooperating with Russia on Nuclear Security

Siegfried S. Hecker and Peter E. Davis, Stanford University

Over the past 20-plus years, along with our Russian colleagues, we have found that at times we must move beyond political disagreements such the political situation in Ukraine, to work together to advance the cause of nuclear security…

U.S. Foreign Policy

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NATO Enlargement 20 Years Later

Eugene Rumer, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

One hot war (Georgia), one covert war (Ukraine), two de facto annexations (South Ossetia and Abkhazia) and one de jure annexation (Crimea) later, Russia has made it clear that it intends to keep NATO out of its neighborhood…

NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Life Sciences Can Transcend Political Animosities

Glenn Schweitzer, The National Academies

Now is the time to take advantage of the respect that the leadership of Russia has for American achievements in science and technology and for the strength and diversity of the higher education establishment in the United States…

U.S. Foreign Policy

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Personalization and Patriotism

Dmitry Gorenburg, Harvard University and CNA Corporation

[For Russian leaders] colored revolutions are a new form of warfare invented by Western governments seeking to remove independently-minded national governments in favor of ones that are controlled by the West…

NATO | Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Lessons Learned and Not Learned

Thomas F. Remington, Emory University

It is one thing to voice official support for Ukrainian participation in the European Association Agreement. It is another entirely for U.S. diplomats to distribute tea and cookies on the central square to participants of a popular uprising to replace the government…

Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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A Russia Problem, Not a Putin Problem

Thomas Graham, Kissinger Associates

[Putin's] anti-Westernism does not mark an absolute rejection of the West and its values…

EU | Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Moving Beyond “Zero Sum” Logic

Jeffrey Mankoff, Center for Strategic and International Studies

In the last few years, Russian policy in this region has moved from being largely defensive to largely offensive…

EU | Putin | Sanctions | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Help Build Markets in Russia and the Region

J. Andrew Spindler, Financial Services Volunteer Corps

Market forces will be more effective than sanctions in influencing Putin’s behavior, and there is already ample evidence that markets are extracting their price in terms of a weakened ruble, falling foreign exchange reserves, capital flight, and reduced growth…

EU | Putin | Sanctions | U.S. Foreign Policy

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Ukraine-Russia: Is There a Way Out?

Steven Pifer, Brookings Institution

Western leaders cannot negotiate over the Ukrainians’ head, but they can counsel Mr. Putin to change course. The most likely interlocutor for the Russian president is German Chancellor Angela Merkel…

EU | NATO | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Sanctions Won’t Work

Rajan Menon, City College of New York, CUNY

Europe does far more trade with Russia (nearly half a trillion dollars a year compared to our $50 billion) than the United States. How long before the EU becomes far less enthusiastic about squeezing Putin?…

EU | Putin | Sanctions | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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It’s All About Ukraine

Matthew Rojansky, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

To understand why Putin and his fellow Russians feel compelled to intervene in Ukraine, you must understand that the crisis in that country began from the deep anger of all strata of Ukrainian society toward the corrupt, incompetent, and increasingly authoritarian regime of former President Viktor Yanukovych…

EU | Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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The Shock of Unintended Consequences

William Potter, Monterey Institute of International Studies

President Obama is under siege on so many fronts, his Russia policy enjoys what could almost be called bipartisan support in comparison to his attempts to deal with the Middle East and most domestic issues…

Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy

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Driven by Domestic Politics

Daniel Treisman, Center for Strategic and International Studies

In just a few months, the Kremlin’s actions have: energized NATO to boost defenses around Russia’s borders; failed to avert (and maybe sped up) EU partnership agreements with Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia; and blackened Russia’s image around the world…

China | NATO | Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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A Moral and Strategic Calamity

John Steinbruner, University of Maryland

It is not in the long term interest of the United States to try to isolate the Russian economy or to degrade its productive development. It is decisively against the interest of the United States to stimulate corruption. That is already a massive problem in Ukraine and not a trivial problem in Russia…

NATO | Putin | Sanctions | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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A Tale of Two Russian Narratives

Timothy Frye, Columbia University

If the goal was to keep Ukraine out of the “new look” NATO, it has certainly succeeded in bringing back elements of the “old look” NATO with calls to increase the NATO presence in member countries near Russia…

NATO | Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Brussels and Beijing

Nikolas K. Gvosdev, U.S. Naval War College

Given that U.S. policy for the last four decades has been predicated on encouraging some degree of distance between Moscow and Beijing, does a closer Russia-China entente create new and unanticipated problems for the U.S.?…

China | Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy | Ukraine

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Behind Russia’s “Propaganda Bullhorn”

William Zimmerman, University of Michigan

The temptation is to dismiss everything emanating from the Kremlin and in the Russian press as, as Secretary of State John Kerry has put it, stemming from ”a propaganda bullhorn” reflecting “a fantasy.” This would be a mistake…

Putin | U.S. Foreign Policy

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